JavaScript Basics

10 minute read

I’m learning JavaScript and this is a good place to take some notes as I go. This isn’t exhaustive and is just a way for me to pick things up quickly and refer back to. I don’t like actually remembering things if I can avoid it. Usually when I write them here I remember them.

I’ve spent the most time in PowerShell so I have a few comparisons sprinkled in.

You should probably checkout Mozilla’s JavaScript Reference instead of this and I have linked to it a bunch to save myself time in the future.

As I run into other noteworthy things I’ll continue to update this as I keep learning. 🙌👀🙌

Running JS

VS Code

Code is my bae and I will probably do most things here. You can run and debug stuff here. Pretty similar experience to other languages.

HTML file

  • Use .html file containing a <Script> or referring to a .js file, more commonly.

Browser Console

  • Use the console on your browser Ctrl + Shift + I in Chrome or right-click > inspect. Make sure to actually click the “Console” button…

NodeJS

https://nodejs.org/en/docs/

  • Use NodeJS. Open up a console, like PowerShell, and run node to get an interactive experience in yo shell!

  • Run JavaScript .js files by running node filename.js
  • npm install <packagename> installs a package
  • npm install installs all packages for a nodeJS project including everything in package.json
  • npm start conventional npm script for starting a node.js application
  • npm run start:dev enables live reload of code as you work on it

NPM - Node Package Manager

Node Package Manager, npm, is the package manager for Node JS. Node JS is the way that you can run JavaScript code outside of the browser. NPM comes installed with Node.js so you get both when you get Node.js.

npm --version - check your installed version of NPM npm init - create a new project, basically just a package.json file. npm --install - installs packaages for project npm install --only=production - installs only dependencies that are required in production. This avoids all of the extra stuff that you get as someone who develops on it. npm start - preferred way to start a project. Make sure that package.json has a start script under the scripts field. npm test - conventional method of running the tests that are in a project

Live Reload

During development, live reload makes it so our microservice is restarted by nodemon when it detects a change to the code. Nodemon is a package that autoreloads our service. AUTOMATION = 👍

npm install --save-dev nodemon - install nodemon as a dev dependency so it doesnt run in prod npx nodemon index.js - calls the nodemon dependency an runs our project.

Make sure to add a devDependencies part to your package.json

  "devDependencies": {
    "nodemon": "^2.0.12"
  }

Borrowing from Ashley Hill, we can add a start:dev script that runs our project in devmode

{
  "scripts": {
    "start": "node index.js",
    "start:dev": "nodemon index.js"
  }

That allows us to run npm run start:dev to run our dev script which just calls nodemon.

NVM - Node Version Manager

Sometimes you need to run multiple versions of Node.js. Node version manager allows you to install different versions of Node.js.

  • For Linux and MacOS, you want this one: https://github.com/nvm-sh/nvm.

  • For Windows, use: https://github.com/coreybutler/nvm-windows.

    Types

Everything except for objects are primitive types

Different Types

Number

All numbers are double-precision floating-point numbers.

> Number.MIN_SAFE_INTEGER
-9007199254740991
> Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER
9007199254740991

If you need bigger stuff you can use big integers, but I don’t know much about that.

You can convert strings to numbers using parseFloat or parseInt.

const lilFloat = parseFloat('3.14')
const littlerFloat = parseInt('3')

Boolean

true or false You can flip the value of a Boolean using the below example. ! stands for not

>let confirmation = false
>confirmation = !confirmation // flips the value
true

Null and Undefined

Null is when something is intentionally absent of a value. Undefined is when a variable is declared but not initialized. If you want to wipe out a variable you should set it to null, rather than undefined. Developers use null, JavaScript uses undefined

String

Use toString() to convert a number back to a string.

Symbol

Object

Converting Strings and Numbers

Don’t use type conversion and manually convert types.

let amount = Number.parseFloat('123.12') // js will parse this string into a float
let amount = 123
amount = amount.toString() // Hi, toString(). Nice to see you here!

NaN

NaN stands for Not a Number. This means a number couldn’t be parsed.

Strings Continued

String Literals

Enclosed in single or double quotes. You can escape quotes inside a string that is delimited by the same quote type by using a \ backslash.

> console.log('escape your \'quotes\'') // each \ escapes the '
escape your 'quotes' 

Template Literals

**YOU MUST USE BACKTICKS, NOT SINGLE QUOTES**⚠ fool me once…

These are just like PowerShell sub-expressions "$(Do-Something)". You can put expressions in them.

> let message = 'I\'m not yelling you\'re yelling'
> let angryMessage = `${message.toUpperCase()}` // BACKTICKS!
> console.log(angryMessage)
I'M NOT YELLING YOU'RE YELLING

Escape Sequences

If you need to keep your files in ASCII you can use \u{code point} notations

Sequence Name Unicode
\b Backspace \u{0008}
\t Tab \u{0009}
\n Linefeed \u{000A}
\r Carriage return \u{000D}
\f Form feed \u{000C}
\v Vertical Tab \u{000B}
' Single Quote \u{0027}
" Double Quote \u{0022}
\\ Backslash \u{005C}
\newline continue. see example ⬇ none
> console.log('hell\
... o friends') // this is kinda like a PowerShell backtick
hello friends

Variables

Use typeof to determine the types

> typeof 'bob'
'string'

Variable Declarations

let

This is for variables that can change let message = 'big ole string'

const

This is for variables that don’t change. const price = 69.99

Avoid var

It’s legacy and screws things up. It used to be the only way of doing things, but now there are better alternatives. see above…

Declare Multiple Variables

Use commas to separate multiple variables.

const companyName = 'Big and Broken Bicycles',
      pi = 3.14159

Odds and Ends

Line Termination

You can terminate lines with ;, but you don’t have to. I am going to avoid it for now, but I believe this is something that VS Code will just take care of automatically once a setting change is made. This can likely be enforceable via a .vscode folder that is part of a repo/project.

Comments

  • Single Line = //commment away

  • Multi-Line = /* comment many lines /*

Operators

Arithmetic Operators

  • +-*/ are the usual suspects

  • % is the modulus or remainder operator and is used to get the remainder

  • ** is used to raise to a power 2 ** 10

  • += assigns and adds. EX: counter += 10

  • ++ can come before or after a variable. If it comes before, then the value is added before the code is ran. If it comes after, the code is ran and then the value is added, which can bee seen below. These are called pre-increment and post-increment.
  • --
> let price = 20
> console.log(price++) // executes the line and THEN adds 1
20
> price
21

Comparison Operators

  • === is equals
  • !== means not equal to
  • >,<,>=,<=

Objects

JavaScript objects are just name/value pairs. name : value make sure to use a : to separate them, rather than an = like in PowerShell. You can access object properties using dot notation object.property.

> let person = {
       firstName : 'Andrew',
       lastName : 'Pla'
    }
> person.firstName
'Andrew'

Add/Modify Property

person.middleName = 'Michael'

Remove Property

delete person.middleName

Access Properties

>person['middlename']
'Andrew'

Accessing non-existent properties returns undefined

Object Methods

let person = {
    name: 'Barbara',
    age: 42,
    referral: false,
    deservesHappiness: function() {
        if(this.age > (-1) ) {
            message = `${this.name} deserves happiness`
            console.log(message)
        }
    }
}

Passing Objects to Functions

You can modify object properties by “passing by reference”

function incrementAge(person){
    person.age++
}

incrememntAge ( person )
// this actually increments the age. This would work if it were a string being passed rather than an object 

Using Symbols

Symbols are special in that they can be used inside an object to hide information.

// Here are two symbols with the same description:
let Sym1 = Symbol("Sym")
let Sym2 = Symbol("Sym")

console.log(Sym1 === Sym2) // returns "false"
// Symbols are guaranteed to be unique.
// Even if we create many symbols with the same description,
// they are different values.

Passing Objects to Functions

Arrays

Arrays are an object whose property names are the strings '0','1','2' and so on. Numbers can’t be property names You can access using bracket notation or dot notation

>const numbers = [1, 2 ,3, 'many']
>numbers[1] // array index up in this
2

Flow Control

if else

if (5 === 6) { console.log('No')}
else if (5 === 5) { console.log('Yes')}

Truthy and Falsy

falsy truthy
false Everything NOT Falsy
0 true
”” or ‘’ - empty strings 0.5
null “0”
undefined  
NaN  

=== and ==

=== stands for equals when doing comparisions. == tries to convert types. Similarly, != and !== will try to convert the types or leave them as is before comparing, respectfully.

Ternary Operator

Ternary works with 3 different values. It’s a shortcut for an if else statement

// condition ? true-statement : false-statement
let message = (5 === 5) ? 'match' : 'not a match'

Block Scope

Variables declared in a code block, {}, with let or const are only accessible in the code block. They are block scoped. You can use a return statement to output a value from a code block.

Loops

For

for (let i = 0; i < 3; i++){
    console.log(i);
}
// 0 1 2

While

let count = 1
while (count < 5){
    console.log(count)
    count++
}
//

Do… While

Use this when you want the body of the code to run once

let count = 1
do {
    console.log(count)
    count++
} while (count < 5)

Functions

It’s just a block of code that is named. You can call it by it’s name, “SAY MY NAME.”

Function Declaration

>function doSomething(){
    // body of function
    console.log('we logged to tha console!')
}
>doSomething()
we logged to tha console!

Function Expression

let fn = function boringFunction () { // name the function for stack trace
// body of function
}
fn() //calls the function

Passing Information to Functions

let myFunction = function myFunction (first, second) {
    console.log(first)
    console.log(second)
}
myFunction()

Return Function Values

Just use return to output stuff. If you don’t output anything it will implicitly output undefined.

Function Scope

Functions have their own scope. Parameters and local variables to that function only exist within that function. They have access to the entire outer scope, however.

Strict Mode

Add use-strict to the top of .js files. This will make you declare your variables. This isn’t required for modules and classes.

Hoisting

You can’t access variables before you declare them. You CAN access functions before you declare them. This is called hoisting. The actual mechanism behind hoisting is that the JavaScript files gets executed after two passes. In the first pass, the JS engine will know there’s a function. In the second pass it will actually execute the code and it already knows about the function.

Functions to Modify WebPages

You can interact with the DOM

function showMessage(message) {
    // grabs 
    document.getElementById('message').textContent = message
}

The above example would modify the following part of an .html file. You can tell because it has the id of message. yay us!

<h1 id="message" class="col-sm-12">Just Do It</h1>

Global Objects

Date, math, string, number, document are all there. Look ‘em up if you need ‘em. I’ll probably add some date examples as time goes on.

DOM

The document is an awesome object for a web document. This is the object that we use to modify a website. It has some cool methods. There are a bunch of different DOM interfaces.

Styling DOM Elements

HTMLElement is a big object. Style is a property that lets us overwrite css values.

const header = document.getElementByID('message')

header.style.color = 'blue'

If you are trying to access an element with a - in the name you can just use camelCase instead and it works!

// the property is actually font-weight
header.style.fontWeight

Detecting Button Clicks

You can use button.addEventListener [https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/API/MouseEvent/button]

// this assumes that you have an anchor tag with an id of click-me
const button = document.getElementById('click-me')

button.addEventListener('click', function () {
    console.log('THE USER CLICKED, WE SHOULD DO SOMETHIN')
})

Showing and Hiding DOM Elements


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